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Karadimos

18th Century Recipes

24 posts in this topic

Pea Soup

Ingredients:

4 c. dried English peas

4 quarts water

6 peppercorns

2 cloves of garlic, chopped

1 large onion, chopped

2 or 3 potatoes, chopped into small pieces

salt as needed

1 T. sage (optional)

1 T. thyme (optional)

2 T. lovage (Optional)

Maple Syrup (optional)

1. Place the peas in the water and add the seasonings.

2. Put the pot on a brisk fire until it boils and skim off any foam which rises to the top.

3. Simmer until almost done, possibly several hours depending upon the age of the peas.

4. Add potatoes.

5.Cook until potatoes are soft.

6.Add more water if the peas start to stick to the pot.

7.Serve with Johnny Cakes or Slapjacks.

Note that this soup can be made with peas that have gotten woody at the end of the season and that it is also much improved by the addition of a quart of good ale in place of a quart of water.

Kale and Onions-

1 lb fresh Kale, stemmed and torn in large pieces

½ medium onion sliced thin

olive oil to cover bottom of pan

1.wash kale.

2.Saute onions in olive oil over medium heat until soft.

3.Add kale and cook until kale is soft and has turned darker than it was when you put it in the pan.

4.Add salt to taste.

Serves 3 or 4 people as a side dish.

Note: when you first put the kale in the pan it will look like a lot, but as it cooks it shrinks up.

Okra-

Fresh okra- 1 or 2 per person

Cornmeal

Hot Water

Butter

Onions (Optional)

1. Slice the okra.

2. 2.Mix some cornmeal with hot water to make a dough that can be made into balls easily.

3. Put a piece of okra in middle of cornmeal and form small ball around it.

4. fry in skillet with butter over medium heat.

5. It is done when the cornmeal is golden brown.

Note: Fry the okra with onions if you want to.

Forcemeat Balls

Take a little fat bacon, beat it in a marble mortar, take two anchovies, two or three pigeons� livers, chop them together; add a little lemon-peel shred, a little beaten mace, nutmeg, cayenne, stale bread crumbs, and beef-suet an equal quantity, mix all together with an egg.

Makes 16 balls about 1 inch/2.5 cm in diameter

4 oz/110 g/2 cups breadcrumbs

2oz/50g/scant ½ cup shredded suet

2 canned anchovy fillets, soaked, chopped and pounded

1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley or ½ tablespoon dried oregano

grated rind of ½ lemon

salt and pepper

pinch each of grated nutmeg and ground mace

a few grains of cayenne pepper

1 large egg, beaten

egg wash for glazing (optional)

The original mixture is stronger in flavour and fattier than we want for most purposes today, but you can add a finely chopped chicken liver and chopped bacon rasher (slice) to the milder �mix� here if you wish. Mix together all the ingredients and adjust the quantity of breadcrumbs if required to make a mixture which will cohere when squeezed. Roll into small balls, coat with egg wash and fry or bake until heated through.

(Black, The Jane Austen Cookbook, p. 79)

Fish in Corbullion

Serves 6

1 fish, about 3lb/1.4 kg, and 2 inches/5cm thick, gutted and scaled

spice bundle containing 5 black peppercorns; 2 whole cloves; 1 large blade mace; 1 slice fresh ginger root; 1 shallot, halved; 2 red radishes, halved; a sprig each of fresh thyme, marjoram and rosemary; 2 bay leaves

10 fl oz/275 ml/1 ¼ cups medium dry white wine

3 tablespoons white wine vinegar

sea salt to taste

garnish of cooked prawns if serving hot or of sliced radishes and preserved lemon slices if serving cold

Any fairly large fish was generally �boiled�: that is, poached in a fish-kettle, having first been wrapped in a cloth. An oval pot-roaster or a stew-pan is suitable for most fish; one measuring 12 x 9inches/36 x 23cm is a convenient size, holding about 7pints/4 litres/17 ½ cups liquid when brimful. Ask the fishmonger to gut and scale the fish. Prepare the spices. A square of butter muslin makes a good �bundle�. Put in the centre the dried spices, ginger root, radishes and herbs, then tie the opposite points together. Wrap the cleaned fish in another piece of muslin folded over on top to make unwrapping easy. Put it on a trivet or serving dish in a stew-pan or pot-roaster. Add the spice bundle, then pour the liquids, including about 4 pints/2.3 litres/10 cups water, over the lot � the fish should be just covered. Add salt to taste and leave to soak for about an hour. Remove the wrapped fish and gently bring the cooking liquid to simmering point. Replace the fish and poach very gently for about 15 minutes. Unwrap to check whether it is done. When it is, lift it out, and drain it well. You can serve it hot, preferably skinned, with some prawns and the wine sauce on page 73, or cold with the radish and preserved lemon slices, new potatoes and a salad. Substitute scrapings of fresh horseradish for the radishes if you have any.

(Black, The Jane Austen Cookbook, pp. 50-51)

Oblietjies (Rolled Wafers)

2 eggs

450 g brown sugar

10 ml (two teaspoons) ground cinnamon

10 ml (two teaspoons) pounded naartjie peel

120 ml (half cup) wine

250 g butter

450 g cake flour

Beat the eggs and sugar and allow to stand. Add the spices, wine and melted butter and fold in the flour. Form into balls the size of walnuts and place in the middle of the heated wafer iron. Close securely but without forcing. Bake for half a minute on each side until lightly browned and lift out with a spatula. Roll up immediately into a trumpet shape or a roll open at both ends. Serve with honey and cream.

(A wafer iron is in appearance very much like a waffle iron)

Bean Soup

500 g dried white beans

1 kg beef or marrow bones

125 g pork speck (if meat is lean)

4 l water (16 cups)

1 onion

1 sprig of parsley

1 mace leaf

salt and pepper to taste

Soak the beans overnight in cold water. Drain, boil for half an hour in fresh water and drain again. To the beans add the 16 cups of water, the meat (or bones) and speck, braised onions and the finely shredded leaves and flavouring. Simmer for 3 to 4 hours stirring occasionally and adding water when necessary.

This filling soup was often the main dish at evening meals, particularly in cold and rainy weather.

Dumpling Soup

Make a soup from:

1 kg beef

2 mace leaves

2.5 to 3.5 l water (8 to 12 cups)

6 cloves

1 spray of sorrel

salt to taste

For the dumplings melt 1 tablespoon soft fat or butter in one cup boiling water and thicken with 2 cups of flour. Allow to cool, fold in two eggs and shape into dumplings the size of walnuts. Steam the dumplings in the soup.

Sweet Potato Fritters (as dessert)

500 ml (2 cups) sweet potato, cooked and mashed

60 g (half cup) cake flour

2 eggs, beaten

cinnamon sugar

Mix the sweet potato and flour and add egg and cinnamon sugar to make a soft batter, adding little milk if necessary. Form into patties and fry in hot fat. Serve with honey and lemon.

Souskluitjies (cinnamon dumplings)

120 g (1 cup) cake flour

10 ml (2 teaspoons baking powder)

1 ml (quarter teaspoon) salt

12.5 ml (1 tablespoon) butter

1 egg

125 ml (half cup) milk

cinnamon sugar

Sift dry ingredients and rub in butter. Beat the egg and milk and mix in the dry ingredients to make a thick batter. Boil 500 ml water with a little salt in a large, shallow saucepan with a tight fitting lid.

Spoon the batter into the boiling water with a teaspoon, each time dipping the teaspoon into the boiling water first. The dumplings must cook separately, not touching each other. Cover and simmer for about 10 minutes. Remove dumplings from water with a perforated spoon, butter them lightly and sprinkle with cinnamon sugar.

To make a sauce, stir cinnamon sugar and butter into the water in which the dumplings were cooked.

Roast Sucking Pig

A sucking pig with an orange in its mouth was traditionally served at wedding receptions. The wedding feast was a splendid occasion held at the home of the bride.

Clean the sucking pig thoroughly and sprinkle the body cavity well with salt and fill with stuffing. Twist the front legs backward and the hind legs forward and fix with meat skewers. Rub the sucking pig with butter and wrap in greased brown or wax paper. Place in a roasting pan with water and roast in a hot oven (200ºC) for about 2 1/2 hours. Remove the paper and continue roasting until brown, constantly brushing the surface with melted butter. Place a potato, apple or orange in the mouth and serve on a platter.

Stuffing:

500 ml(2 cups) minced meat

25 ml (2 tablespoons) minced ham

7 ml (1.5 teaspoons) coriander

1 thick slice of bread soaked in milk

2 ml (half teaspoon) pounded cloves

salt and pepper

12.5 ml (1 tablespoon) vinegar

1 egg

Mix all the ingredients and use for stuffing the pig.

Cherry Soup

adapted from Das Brandenburgisches Kochbuch (1723)

In a large frying pan, gently warm a large can of pitted cherries (never fear, they would have used preserved cherries in the 18th-century as well) in butter, having discarded the canning syrup. Add a bottle of nice dry red wine (this wine needs to be tasty, cooking wine will not do). Add sugar and cinnamon to taste. When thoroughly warmed put the contents of the pan through a food mill and serve.

Turnip-Soup

TAKE a gallon of water, and a bunch of turnips, pare them, save three or four out, put the rest into the water with a half an ounce of whole pepper, an onion stuck with cloves, a blade of mace, half a nutmeg bruised, a little bundels of sweet herbs and a large crust of bread. Let these boil an hour pretty fast, then strain it through a sieve, squeezing the turnips through; wash and cut a bunch of celery very small, set it on in the liquor on the fire, cover it close and let it stew. In the mean time, cut the turnips you saved into dice, and two or three small carrots clean scraped, and cut in little pieces: put half these turnips nd carrots into the pot with the celery and other half fry brown in fresh butter. You must flour them first, and two or three onions peeled, cut in thin slices and fried brown then put them all into the soup with an ounce of vermicelli. Let your soup boil softly till the celery s quite tender and your soup good. Season it with salt to your palate. (18th century cookbook, The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, by Hannah Glasse)

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Those are some neat recipes. The pea soup really caught my attention.... Who would think to add maple syrup to pea soup? It sounds strange, but might be worth trying.

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Those are some neat recipes. The pea soup really caught my attention.... Who would think to add maple syrup to pea soup? It sounds strange, but might be worth trying.

And you call yourself a Canadian? Don't you like maple syrup in your beans or is it just a Quebecois thing? Just kidding with you , but try it you"ll see it is good. :lol:

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I want to try the cherry soup, but I have no pitted cherries right now.

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Those are some neat recipes. The pea soup really caught my attention.... Who would think to add maple syrup to pea soup? It sounds strange, but might be worth trying.

And you call yourself a Canadian? Don't you like maple syrup in your beans or is it just a Quebecois thing? Just kidding with you , but try it you"ll see it is good. ;)

No, it isn't a just Quebecois thing, Maple Syrup in brown beans is awesome... But in pea soup... Well that is another matter entirely.... But since you bring up Quebecois, do you have a good recipe for French Canadian Split Pea soup?

And Karadimos, I agree fully... That Cherry soup recipe sounds delightful. A local friend of mine has a cherry tree, and if I recall correctly, the cherries on that tree come to ripeness in late June or early July, I think I will try that recipe around that time. :lol:

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I just got the box that I mailed to myself from England and in that box is my new book "The British Museum Cookbook". I have these scanned in my gallery under Recipe Scans.

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In his book The Voyages and Travels of Captain Nathaniel Uring (1928 reprint, first published in 1726), Captain Uring describes several recipes from "the Colonies." They're kind of neat, so I am reprinting them.

“… [ I ] assisted the poor old Man in all his Plantation Business [while Uring was staying with them in 1698-9], as I did the Wife in beating Indian Corn to make Homine; which is done after this manner: They put such a Quantity of Corn in steep as they design to boil the next Day, and then take a small Quantity at a time and beat it in a wooden Mortar, which is made by hollowing a Piece of a Tree, and with a Pestle beat the Corn till it is broken into small Pieces, and the Husk separated from the Grain, which is facilitated by its being soaked in Water all Night: When they have beat the Quantity they design, they Winnow the Husk from the Grain, and put it into a Pot with some few Kidney Beans, and a sufficient Quantity of Water, with a Piece of Beef or Pork, and

__

Boil it, and it is excellent hearty Food, very wholesome and well tasted, and is what most of the poorer sort of People in that Country [the Colonies] live upon. We had no Oven belonging to our Mansion; but when Bread was wanted, the good Woman used to knead the Paste made of Indian Flower, and then grease the Inside of the Frying-pan with Pork or Beef Fat, and put the Paste into it, and covering it with broad Leaves, set it into the Ashes in the Fire-hearth, where it remained a certain Time sufficient to bake it, and then take it out, and it is a very good Loaf of Bread.

Another way of making Bread is, the daubing the Paste to a Board two Inches thick, and setting it before the Fire till it is baked on that Side, and setting it before the Fire till it is thoroughly baked. They have a good sort of Food that they make of the Indian Flower, which they call Mush. They boil it in the same manner we do Hasty-pudding, and eat it either with Milk or Molosses and Water.” (Uring, p. 12-3)

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My mom has a cookbook called ''Bach for more: recipes from the 18th century" The potatoe pudding she made a while ago was delicious.

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Hmm, I'll have to check into the "kidney beans". I can't seem to find another reference for them by that name that early, but beans are rather problematic. Varieties typically had very different names. I wonder if there was some judicial re-labeling in the reprint?

Anyway, I'm going to track this down and see what comes of it.

Jen

In his book The Voyages and Travels of Captain Nathaniel Uring (1928 reprint, first published in 1726), Captain Uring describes several recipes from "the Colonies." They're kind of neat, so I am reprinting them.

“… [ I ] assisted the poor old Man in all his Plantation Business [while Uring was staying with them in 1698-9], as I did the Wife in beating Indian Corn to make Homine; which is done after this manner: They put such a Quantity of Corn in steep as they design to boil the next Day, and then take a small Quantity at a time and beat it in a wooden Mortar, which is made by hollowing a Piece of a Tree, and with a Pestle beat the Corn till it is broken into small Pieces, and the Husk separated from the Grain, which is facilitated by its being soaked in Water all Night: When they have beat the Quantity they design, they Winnow the Husk from the Grain, and put it into a Pot with some few Kidney Beans, and a sufficient Quantity of Water, with a Piece of Beef or Pork, and

__

Boil it, and it is excellent hearty Food, very wholesome and well tasted, and is what most of the poorer sort of People in that Country [the Colonies] live upon. We had no Oven belonging to our Mansion; but when Bread was wanted, the good Woman used to knead the Paste made of Indian Flower, and then grease the Inside of the Frying-pan with Pork or Beef Fat, and put the Paste into it, and covering it with broad Leaves, set it into the Ashes in the Fire-hearth, where it remained a certain Time sufficient to bake it, and then take it out, and it is a very good Loaf of Bread.

Another way of making Bread is, the daubing the Paste to a Board two Inches thick, and setting it before the Fire till it is baked on that Side, and setting it before the Fire till it is thoroughly baked. They have a good sort of Food that they make of the Indian Flower, which they call Mush. They boil it in the same manner we do Hasty-pudding, and eat it either with Milk or Molosses and Water.” (Uring, p. 12-3)

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I also have the original, I can check. But the editor has thus far footnoted all the definitions and notes about unclear meanings from the original. The manuscript contains all the funny spellings, f's for s's, strange abbreviations (like wou'd) and so forth.

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Well, so far nothing specific, although one of the folks who attended the foodways symposium on peas, beans and rice says they did discuss the presence of red beans. So kidney beans are possible (but not limas) and they did discuss how succotash was probably unrecognizable to us.

I didn't run into the botanist at the historic site where I volunteer, but he has planted some heirloom varieties of beans in the garden. I'll ask him if our schedules overlap on Friday and I see him.

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The term kidney bean turns up in the 1540s mostly in ref to the multitude of Phaseolus vulgaris found in the New World which is bloody awkward as it covers red, white, black, navy and all the other edible New World beans. Columbus brings a few types back to Europe in 1493 which they start cultivating around the Med fairly quickly. In his log November 4, 1492 he describes lands in Cuba planted with faxones and fabas "different than ours."

From a article on beans I have (I really know how to live me, it was on the shelf next to that riveting read The Historical and Social Influences of the Potato);

"The discovery of the Americas triggered a rapid exchange of crops between the Old and New

World. The pathways of beans dissemination in Europe is still unclear and currently under discussion,

since the initial input of common bean in Europe is largely unrecorded. It is likely that sailors and

traders brought the nicely coloured and easily transportable bean seeds already from the first trips

towards the Americas in the 16th and 17th centuries. The initial common bean accessions were

introduced probably in Europe from Mesoamerica, since Columbus arrived in Central America in 1492

and Cortes reached Mexico in 1518, while Pizarro, exploring Peru in 1528, gave the chance to

introduce common bean from the Andes. The first European explorers certainly devoted great interest

towards this species. For example, Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, who explored Panama and

Nicaragua in 1530, included in its travel reports detailed information on common bean cultivation

techniques used by the American natives.

There are strong evidences that common bean reached France already in 1508, probably without

value for human consumption at that time. The first description of common bean in European

herbals was done by Fuchs (1542–1543), who reported that the common bean had climbing habit,

white or red flowers and red, white, yellow, skin-colored or liver-colored seeds with or without spots.

However, it cannot be excluded that Fuchs reported a combination of traits belonging to both

P. vulgaris and Phaseolus coccineus L. species. Further descriptions were done by Roesslin in 1550 by

Oellinger in 1553 and by Dodonaeus in 1554.

The physician Baldassarre Pisanelli in his ‘Treatise of the nature of food and drinks’ published in

1583 estimated that common beans were “much worse than faves, but among them the red are the

best”. Teofilo Folengo, a monk and poet of noble family, also reported some features of common bean

in a treatise dealing with food published in 1562”

Edited by Grymm

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Wonderful! Where did you find this article? You do have the most interesting library :D

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Another recipe from Uring,

“He [their Guide to El Djem near Tunis] was a venerable old Man, of about Sixty or Seventy Years of Age, who welcomed us to his House very courteously, and in less than two Hours we were entertained with a good Dish of Cuscusu, with a Couple of Fowls in it. It was brought to us in a wooden Dish without Spoons, for those People make use of neither

__

Knives, Forks or Spoons; the Fowls were so much boiled they were easily parted without a Knife; the Cuscusu they take up in their Hands, the Broth running again into the Dish thro’ their Fingers, and eat in the same manner as the Negroes, which gave me a Dislike to be in their mess, and therefore I dined upon a Piece of a cold Fowl we had with us. Their Cusucu, which is one of their general and best Dishes, is made thus: They put Flower into a large flat Pan, and sprinkle it with Water, and taking great Pains to shake it too and fro over a slow Fire, which separates it, and rolls it into small Balls about the Bigness of Pidgeon Shot; when they have prepared a sufficient Quantity of it, they put it into a sort of Culender, which they set over the Top of the Pot where their Flesh is boiling, and it receives the Steam thereof and moistens it; and when their Meat is boiled enough, they put it all together into a Dish and eat it.” (Uring, p. 193-4)

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Here is a page chock-a-block full of references to 18th century cookbooks online. Most of them are later than GAoP, but it's one of the more comprehensive lists I've seen.

Note: The hot-links to upenn.com do NOT work as shown, but if you really, really want to see them, you can find them by using the UPenn online books search page. It's a bit more work, but if you really want to see them...

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You can still use period cookbooks at least a decade OOP. Possibly as much as 20 years OOP, depending on the age of the author. Period cookery books tend to be published at the end of the author's career, so there is an accumulated collection of receipts over the course of that person's career spanning back decades.

It is also worth checking ECCO for period cookery books. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/ecco/

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Interesting. A lot of those cookbooks listed in my link aren't first editions, so you know they date back even further than is listed.

Oh neat! I didn't know U of M put the text versions of ECCO material on-line. That might save me some trips to MSU to download material in the future...

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4 recipes together...

17th-18th_century_recipe_book_Wellcome_L

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These are great recipes! Shall have to try them.

keep 'em comin'!

~Lady B

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I just ran across a couple of recipes in a children's book, of all places! The book is called 'The Merry History of a Christmas Pie' by Nancy Willard (copywright 1974) and has two recipes that are "from 'The English Art of Cookery', by Richard Briggs, London: 1694." One makes the modern craze of 'turducken' looks like child's play.

Yorkshire Christmas Pie:

Take a fine large turkey, a goose, a large fowl, a partridge, and a pigeon, and bone them all nicely: beat half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, half an ounce of white pepper (ground), and two large spoonfuls of salt, all mixed together; open all the fowls down the back, lay the turkey on the dresser, season it in the inside, lay the goose breast downward in the turkey, then season the goose, put the fowl the same way, then the partridge, then the pigeon, close them together, to make them look like a whole turkey, as well as you can; case and bone a hare, and cut it in pieces, with six woodcocks, moor game, or small wild fowl, all boned; make a bushel of flour with ten pounds of butter into a paste, as directed, make the bottom and sides very thick and raise it as high as you can, put in some seasoning, then lay in the turkey, breast uppermost, lay the hare on one side, and the woodcocks, moor game, or wild fowl, on the other side, sprinkle seasoning all over; put four pounds of butter on the top, lay on a thick lid, ornament the sides and top, but first rub it over with the yolk of an egg, put paper over it, and bake it in a hot oven for six hours; let stand till it is cold before you cut it. It will keep a good while.

Christmas Soup:

Take a leg and shin of beef and cut them small, put them into eight gallons of water, when the scum rises, skim it well, boil it for six hours, then strain it into a pan, clean out the pot, and pour your broth in again; slice the crumb of six penny loaves a quarter of an hour, then give it a boil up, and rub it through a sieve into the broth: have ready six pounds of currants well washed and picked, jar raisins picked and stoned, and two pounds of prunes, boil all these in the soup till they swell and are tender; then put in half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of cloves, and two nutmegs, all beat fine; mix them in a little cold broth first, and then put them in, with four lemons; boil it up ten minutes, keep it stirring, then put it into earthen pans, and put it by for use; when you want it make it hot, and send it in a soup dish or tureen, with crispt French bread.

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I just ran across a couple of recipes in a children's book, of all places! The book is called 'The Merry History of a Christmas Pie' by Nancy Willard (copywright 1974) and has two recipes that are "from 'The English Art of Cookery', by Richard Briggs, London: 1694." One makes the modern craze of 'turducken' looks like child's play.

Yorkshire Christmas Pie:

Take a fine large turkey, a goose, a large fowl, a partridge, and a pigeon, and bone them all nicely: beat half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, half an ounce of white pepper (ground), and two large spoonfuls of salt, all mixed together; open all the fowls down the back, lay the turkey on the dresser, season it in the inside, lay the goose breast downward in the turkey, then season the goose, put the fowl the same way, then the partridge, then the pigeon, close them together, to make them look like a whole turkey, as well as you can; case and bone a hare, and cut it in pieces, with six woodcocks, moor game, or small wild fowl, all boned; make a bushel of flour with ten pounds of butter into a paste, as directed, make the bottom and sides very thick and raise it as high as you can, put in some seasoning, then lay in the turkey, breast uppermost, lay the hare on one side, and the woodcocks, moor game, or wild fowl, on the other side, sprinkle seasoning all over; put four pounds of butter on the top, lay on a thick lid, ornament the sides and top, but first rub it over with the yolk of an egg, put paper over it, and bake it in a hot oven for six hours; let stand till it is cold before you cut it. It will keep a good while.

Christmas Soup:

Take a leg and shin of beef and cut them small, put them into eight gallons of water, when the scum rises, skim it well, boil it for six hours, then strain it into a pan, clean out the pot, and pour your broth in again; slice the crumb of six penny loaves a quarter of an hour, then give it a boil up, and rub it through a sieve into the broth: have ready six pounds of currants well washed and picked, jar raisins picked and stoned, and two pounds of prunes, boil all these in the soup till they swell and are tender; then put in half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of cloves, and two nutmegs, all beat fine; mix them in a little cold broth first, and then put them in, with four lemons; boil it up ten minutes, keep it stirring, then put it into earthen pans, and put it by for use; when you want it make it hot, and send it in a soup dish or tureen, with crispt French bread.

Both excellent additions! I love how so many of the recipes talke about cooked foods 'keeping a good while'.

I especially liked the recipe for how to cook a husband.

mP

Yeah. That's a great one.

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